Ningde, commonly known as Mindong, was the residence of Minyue people in the pre Qin period. Wenma county was established in the third year of Taikang (282), Changxi County in the sixth year of Wude (623), Funing Prefecture in the 23rd year of the Yuan Dynasty (1286), Funing Prefecture in the 12th year of Yongzheng (1734), dongludao (renamed minhaidao in 1914) in 1913, and the second, first, eighth and first administrative supervision districts were established successively during the period of the Republic of China 。 In September 1949, the third office of the Commissioner of administrative supervision was set up, with its special office in Fu'an. In 1950, it was renamed the office of the Commissioner of Fu'an district. In July 1970, it was relocated to Ningde, and in June 1971, it was renamed Ningde district. On November 14, 1999, with the approval of the State Council, Ningde Municipal People's government was established and officially listed on November 14, 2000.
It is located in the northeast of Fujian Province, between 118 ° 32 ′～ 120 ° 43 ′ E and 26 ° 18 ′～ 27 ° 40 ′ n, adjacent to the East China Sea in the East, Fuzhou in the south, Nanping in the West and Wenzhou City in Zhejiang Province in the north.
The land area of the whole city is 13452 square kilometers, of which mountains and hills are the main ones. There are small marine and alluvial plains along the coast. The terrain is high in the West and North, low in the East and south, and uplifted in the middle.
East Fujian has a wide sea and a deep harbor. The coastline is 1046 km long, ranking the first among all the cities in the province. The sea area is 44600 square kilometers, and the shallow beach area is 93400 hectares. The sea area available for operation is 3.3 times of the land area in the province. There are 1215 islands, reefs, sands, beaches, headlands, waterways and estuaries in the area, and 29 harbors and bays, of which the length of sandu'ao deep water coastline ranks first in the province.
East Fujian is surrounded by mountains and facing the sea. It has beautiful mountains and rivers, vast sea area, star array of islands and rich specialties. It is rich in tourism resources integrating "mountains, rivers, islands, lakes, forests and caves". Ningde World Geopark, which is composed of Baishuiyang, a hydrophilic paradise, Taimu mountain, a fairyland on the sea, and Baiyun Mountain, a famous mountain and Qixia, has been officially listed in the World Geopark network list by UNESCO, becoming the Second World Geopark in Fujian Province. Yuanyang River in Baishuiyang, Pingnan, and Taimu mountain in Fuding have been awarded 5A scenic spots; Liyu River scenic spot in Jiulong, Zhouning, and Baiyun Mountain in Fu'an have successfully established 4A scenic spots. Other famous scenic spots include sandu'ao, the "Sky Lake on the sea", Xiapu beach, one of the most beautiful beaches in China, Xiapu Chian, the landing place of Japanese monk Konghai in Tang Dynasty, Gutian Linshui palace, which enjoys a high reputation with Mazu temple in Southeast Asia, Fuding Yushan Island, one of the ten most beautiful islands in China, and Ningde Zhiti Mountain National Forest Park. The route of "water tour in the East and north of Fujian" was selected as one of the "ten best routes of CCTV national perfect holiday".
Most of the rivers in the territory are northwest southeast trending, forming independent rivers, with 24 larger rivers. Among them, Jiaoxi and huotongxi, the two largest river systems, and their 10 larger tributaries, account for 65.5% of the total drainage area of the city. Groundwater resources account for about 14% of the total water resources. The theoretical storage capacity of water energy resources is 1916400 kW, and the exploitable installed capacity is 1310900 kW, accounting for 68.87% of the storage capacity.
There are abundant non-metallic minerals, followed by metallic minerals and poor energy minerals. 51 kinds of mineral resources have been discovered, and 18 kinds have been proved to have certain reserves. The main minerals are silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, copper, kaolin, pyrophyllite, illite, potash feldspar, granite for decoration, mineral water, etc.
Ningde is located in the southeast coast, belongs to the subtropical marine monsoon climate. It has a variety of climate characteristics, such as mountain climate, basin and valley climate. It has the same period of rain and heat in spring and summer, mutual benefit of light and temperature in autumn and winter, sufficient light energy, abundant heat, abundant rain, four distinct seasons, significant marine monsoon climate, wide temperature difference between coastal and inland, diverse climate types and frequent disastrous climate. In 2019, the annual average temperature is 16.0 ℃ ~ 20.7 ℃, the annual rainfall is 1193.7 ~ 2018.8 mm, and the annual sunshine hours are 1401.6 ~ 1707.2 hours.
The ecological environment quality of the whole city has maintained a good level. In 2019, the proportion of days with good air quality (days reaching the standard) in the central urban area will be 98.4%. The water quality of drinking water source areas reached the standard rate of 100%; the water quality of Jiaoxi, huotongxi, Gutianxi, Minjiang River section and Aojiang shuangkoudu was in good condition, and the functional standard rate was 100%. The average environmental noise of urban area is 53.7 dB, and the average traffic noise of urban road is 67.4 dB. The quality level is good.
East Fujian is a place where many nationalities live together. Besides the Han nationality, there are 28 ethnic minorities such as she, Hui and Zhuang. Among them, the population of She nationality accounts for 92.5%, which is the most concentrated area in China. All dialects in eastern Fujian belong to the eastern Fujian dialect system represented by Fuzhou dialect.
East Fujian is known as "natural fish warehouse". There are more than 600 kinds of aquatic resources in the sea area, including 500 kinds of fish, 60 kinds of shrimps and crabs, 70 kinds of shellfish and 10 kinds of algae. Among them, the more precious ones, such as Guanjingyang Pseudosciaena crocea, Dongwuyang prawn, Erdu clam, Shatang razor clam, Shajiang oyster, are famous at home and abroad. Mindong is one of the key tea producing areas in China. It is an important edible fungus producing area with the largest production and the most complete varieties in China. There are many kinds of fruits, such as Siji pomelo, Younai, chestnut, Furong plum, honey peach, late ripening litchi and longan.